Strong and Weak AI
In the media, artificial intelligence is often portrayed as an autonomous "thinking machine" with limitless capabilities. It is this kind of “self-developing”, truly “thinking” artificial intelligence that is described by many science fiction writers as a terrible technological monster that could potentially enslave humanity. In reality, this does not exist, yet.
Therefore, it is necessary to clearly understand and delineate the "criterion of rationality" of machines. This is called the division of artificial intelligence into Strong and Weak AI.
Today we are dealing with a weak AI: this means that a machine can perform one specific task. for example, playing computer games, determining what is shown in a picture, or translating a voice into appropriate text. Each such AI is configured (trained) separately, and each AI is strictly limited to its task. One should note though, that the term “weak” should not carry in itself a pejorative connotation, it is just how the term was coined to delineate forms of AI.
Strong AI, on the other hand, implies that a computer does not just operate with information, but, to a certain extent, understands its meaning. For example, if a computer translator from one language to another simply replaces some words with others according to the given rules, then this is Weak AI. If it translates based on the understanding the meaning of the text, then this is more of a Strong AI.
Traditional expert systems are an example of weak artificial intelligence based on pre-programmed rules ("if-then", "if ... then ..."). The key feature of modern weak artificial intelligence is its ability to solve problems without clear rules, explanations of how it is done, but this is still not a strong AI. This is machine learning.